Ashfield employs the open town meeting form of government, and is led by a board of selectmen and an administrative assistant. All of the town's services are located in the town center, including the town hall, police and fire departments, as well as the Belding Memorial Library and the town's post office. The nearest hospital, Franklin Medical Center, is located in Greenfield, as are most of the nearest state offices.
On the state level, Ashfield is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives by the Second Berkshire district, which covers central Berkshire County, as well as portions of Hampshire and Franklin Counties. In the Massachusetts Senate, the town is represented by the Berkshire, Hampshire and Franklin district, which includes all of Berkshire County as well as western portions of Franklin and Hampshire Counties. The town is patrolled by the Second Barracks of Troop "B" of the Massachusetts State Police, headquartered in Shelburne Falls.
On the national level, Ashfield is represented in the United States House of Representatives as part of Massachusetts's 1st congressional district.